Metal forming is the process of shaping a piece of metal into the desired shape. The process can be done through various methods, including roll forming, bending, extrusion, forging, and many more. It is an important manufacturing process because it allows creating metal parts of various shapes and sizes. The process is also relatively efficient and can be used to create large structural metal parts with high accuracy. As a result, metal forming is an essential part of the manufacturing industry.

Although there are many types of metal forming processes, they can be broadly classified into five main categories:

Roll Forming

It is a continuous operation in which a long strip of metal (typically coiled steel) is passed through a series of pairs of rolls or stands, each set performing only an incremental part of the bend until the desired cross-section profile is obtained. Roll forming is performed at room temperature and can be used to form metals into a large variety of different shapes and sizes.
In fact, many steel fabricators have already adopted this method and are using it to create special profiles. Roll forming is slightly used in the fabrication industry however; bending is the more dominant method. Fabricators generally use roll-formed products like sheet metal; I, U & H profiles, circular and rectangular hollow sections. These hot-formed products are then fabricated into strut channels, metal door frames, automotive body panels, solar racking, etc.
Find Out 5 Different Types of Metal Forming Processes
Find Out 5 Different Types of Metal Forming Processes


The advantages of roll forming over other metal forming processes include:
Ability to produce complex shapes with minimum tooling.
Form metals with high strength-to-weight ratios.
Versatility in forming a wide range of different metals.
A continuous process that leads to high production rates.
Generates little scrap.
Easy to handle.


The process also has some disadvantages, including the following:
Limited to metals that can be cold-rolled.
Not well suited for metals with high yield strength.


It is a metal forming process in which applied forces deform a piece of metal. The force required to bend the metal is determined by the material’s flexibility, thickness, and radius of curvature. Once the metal has been bent, it can be planished, or smoothed out, to remove any imperfections.
Bending is often used to create complex shapes from sheet metal, such as curves and corners. It can also be used to join two pieces of metal together. The metal must be heated to the proper temperature for a hassle-free process. This allows the molecules in the metal to become more pliable, making it easier to deform. Bending can be done by hand or machine.
Find Out 5 Different Types of Metal Forming Processes
Find Out 5 Different Types of Metal Forming Processes

Let’s talk about the advantages of bending first.
Bending is relatively simple and does not require the use of expensive equipment.
It can be done by hand or using a machine.
It is one of the most economical metal forming processes.
Parts developed through bending require less tooling and post-processing operations.
It offers high accuracy and precision.


The process can only be used on metals that are ductile enough to be deformed.
The process is not well suited for metals that are difficult to weld.


In this metal forming process, a metal is forced through a die to create the desired shape. The process can be either hot or cold, depending on the type of metal being worked with. Extrusion is often used to create objects with a hollow center, such as pipes or tubing. The process can also create solid objects with a complex cross-sectional shape. As the metal is forced through the die, it takes on the shape of the opening.
This makes extrusion an ideal method for creating parts with a precise and consistent cross-sectional shape. In addition, extrusion can be used to create parts with varying cross-sectional shapes by using dies with multiple openings. The process can also create long, continuous lengths of material, making it ideal for plumbing or electrical wiring applications.
Find Out 5 Different Types of Metal Forming Processes
Find Out 5 Different Types of Metal Forming Processes


After extrusion comes forging, this process involves shaping metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer or a die. Forging is often categorized according to the temperature at which it is performed: cold forging, warm forging, or hot forging.
Cold forging (typically done below room temperature) avoids the workpiece’s annealing or heat-softening. Warm forging (performed at temperatures above room temperature) increases the ductility and toughness of the workpiece. Hot forging (performed at temperatures above recrystallization temperature) reduces surface roughness and scale formation on the workpiece.

Deep Drawing

The process of deep drawing is a forming process that involves pressing a sheet metal blank into a die to create a three-dimensional shape. This process is often used to create low-profile cylindrical parts, such as components for the automotive and aerospace industries.
The sheet metal blank must be stretched beyond its elastic limit to achieve the desired shape. This can be achieved through an intricate die design and careful control of the blank’s material properties.


Tecvina is an international brand of Truong Thanh Mechanical Heat Joint Stock Company, based in Vietnam and established in 2008.


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